Cloud Computing for Business : Cloud Computing in Use

 

This appendix contains a set of use-cases or scenarios that provide a high-level depiction of real-world business problems that were addressed using cloud computing. It also includes analyses of the actors involved in the use-cases and of the benefits of cloud computing that the use-cases exemplify.

The use-cases were developed by the Cloud Business Use-Cases project of The Open Group Cloud Computing Work Group. The project worked in co-operation with other cloud computing use-case industry initiatives, but focused specifically on business use of the cloud as opposed to its technical operation. Its findings are published as an Open Group White Paper [CBUC].

The project developed 24 use-cases. Each case considered a typical use of cloud computing by a business. The uses concerned were in real businesses, known to or researched by the project team members, but sometimes represent abstractions of the experiences of one or more enterprises rather than a record of the experience of a single enterprise.

The use of cloud computing is increasingly widespread. The project team found that the overall rate of take-up across industries is pretty consistent, although the use of private and/or community clouds is more common in some specific industries.

The use-case descriptions cover the following aspects:

  • Category – industry, sector, or environment
  • Company background (not in all cases)
  • Business problem/description of the situation
  • Actors impacted by the business problem
  • Key business requirements (including quality and/or service-level requirements where known)
  • Business risks associated with the problem

Six of these use-cases are cross-industry and 18 are industry-aligned.

Cross-IndustryUse-Cases

Case 1: Business Activity Reporting

Company Background

This cross-industry company must address the need to produce different reports for Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and Service-Level Agreements (SLA) to plan, understand, and optimize operational and financial performance.

Business Problem/Description

The reports/status information for numerous stakeholders is required in varying formats. However, data for creating reports is in disparate locations, and the data needs to be aggregated, filtered, and assembled in order to be more useful and generate value for the target audience.

Actors

·  Shareholders

·  Operational Management

·  Service Providers

Business Requirements

·  Need to generate management reports for shareholders using the same underlying data, but in a different format, as those used for operational management to report the business performance to shareholders – this can be a powerful way of driving efficiency and complying with exchange listing requirements.

·  Need SLA/OLA reports for service providers so that various internal and external service providers can have their performance reports produced from disparate locations and organizational entities.

Business Risks

·  Inadequate governance due to lack of timely and inefficient reporting

·  Lost customers if SLAs or OLAs not met

·  Loss of transparency for stakeholders

Case 2: Modernization

Company Background

This cross-industry company must address modernization of its business processes and legacy applications. However, they do not have the skills in-house to conduct such activities. Existing business services and assets are out-of-date and need modernization.

Business Problem/Description

Business needs to combat the problem of “legacy-ization” – it needs to change existing assets for new assets and skills rapidly. Business needs access to new technology quickly – the innovator’s dilemma [CHRISTENSEN]. Business does not have the skills in-house to transition via cloud facilitation to modernize business processes.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Innovation Management

·  Portfolio Management

·  Data Center Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Need to modernize infrastructure

·  Need to modernize applications

·  Need to modernize business processes

·  Improve employee skills

Business Risks

·  Lost competitiveness

·  Lost opportunities due to inability to support new business market

·  Lost skills and resources retention

·  Excessive investment spends on maintaining legacy applications

·  Impact on existing contracts for support, licensing, and services

Case 3: Rapid Business Capacity and Scale

Company Background

This business needs to scale up its operations rapidly, including increased IT capacity – within a short cycle of days to a few months – to meet specific operating workloads.

Business Problem/Description

There is deficiency of resources and capacity to meet business activity demand to support day and night-time peak loads. The company is facing issues such as how to balance compute workloads better, how to optimize costs of operations, and how to follow variable demands of service effectively and efficiently at lower cost.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Remote user desktop services

·  Infinite compute and storage capacity on-demand

·  Access to temporary computing processing for business simulation and transaction processing

·  Business process extensions; e.g., BPO

·  Access to rapid deployment of existing business process resources including applications and infrastructure

Business Risks

·  Lost revenue from lack of capacity

·  Lost customers from under-performance of business delivery

Case 4: Operational Efficiency

Company Background

A company embarked on a strategic initiative to improve its management of development and test infrastructures.

Business Problem/Description

Business requires better management of development and test infrastructure without increasing IT labor and set-up costs.

Actors

·  Application Development and Delivery

·  Test and Quality Assurance

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Provide management (e.g., automatically or self-service) for business activities that scale up and down operations with associated temporary capacity

·  Provide governance structure and control to manage disparate activities for project-based resources

Business Risks

·  Opportunities for analysis missed

·  Products and services are late to market

·  Lost customers and market share due to failure to create ease of doing business

·  Excessive complexity in business operations

Case 5: People Productivity, Workplace Collaboration

Company Background

A company embarked on a strategic initiative to improve its internal and external communications.

Business Problem/Description

The company’s workforce needs to communicate and collaborate more efficiently within the company and with its global network of customers, suppliers, and business partners.

Actors

·  Operations Management

·  CIO

·  CTO

Business Requirements

·  Remote user desktop services

·  Improve the internal collaboration requirements (e.g., communication methods) for the business

·  Improve the external collaboration requirements (e.g., customer meetings) for the business

·  Improvements must be easy to implement

·  Improvements must provide secure connections

Business Risks

·  Improvement implementations costly and time consuming

·  Improvement connections not secure

Case 6: Development and Test Services

Company Background

A company embarked on a strategic initiative to establish development and test environments for functionality and performance of applications so that businesses can achieve faster time-to-market for their products.

Business Problem/Description

The development and test environments need to be provisioned at short notice and then mothballed or redeployed elsewhere once the development or tests have been conducted. This represents a significant cost in effort and capital expenditure (CAPEX). Virtualization can be used to address this but there is often a demarcation along physical lines across business units, and so the take-up rate is not as large as it should be due to the localized nature of using virtualization.

Actors

·  Development Teams

·  Test Teams

·  Product Sales and Marketing Executives

Business Requirements

·  Development and test environments need to be provisioned at short notice.

·  Development and test environments need to be mothballed or redeployed elsewhere once tests have been conducted.

·  Time-to-market for products needs to be maintained or decreased.

Business Risks

·  Time-to-market increases

·  CAPEX costs increase as individual projects or business units need to provision test environments that are segregated

Financial ServicesUse-Cases

Case 7: Business Transaction Assurance and Continuity

Company Background

This financial services company is seeking rapid continuity services that assure business operations and associated transactions, particularly during mergers and acquisitions.

Business Problem/Description

This company lacks the necessary in-house skills and resources to support the high degree of sensitive assets and data that is required to support its key business processes. Business Transaction Assurance, Disaster Recovery Planning, and Testing of vital business processes for the same are required to comply with enterprise and regulatory guidelines.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Provide necessary disaster and recovery back-up processes

·  Ensure that business activities are met during times of additional complexity, such as mergers and acquisitions

·  Access to rapid deployment of compatible and simple end-user services through browser or end-user device

Business Risks

·  Current business operation is exposed to disaster and recovery back-up processes either being insufficient or not in place

·  Lost information contributing to poor business decisions

·  Loss of business continuity across processes and new ventures

·  Significant loss of assets or revenue flow

Case 8: Business Market Launch

Company Background

This financial services company needs to rapidly introduce new products and/or services into a new or existing marketplace.

Business Problem/Description

There are insufficient resources and capacity for this company to rapidly respond to marketplace needs including seasonal events, although new entrant opportunities have been identified.

Actors

·  Marketing Management

·  New Product Development

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  New products and/or services require new applications

·  Rapid development and launch of new product and/or service specification

·  Reliable and responsive service provision to support product and service launch

·  Need more capacity for storage of information and to support service delivery

Business Risks

·  Lost opportunity cost

·  Lost customers from under-performance of business delivery

Case 9: Secure Business Assurance Services

Company Background

This financial services company is seeking transaction verification and hosting security assurance services.

Business Problem/Description

Security assurance is paramount to business operations, yet there is increased concern over the external service provider’s services. This business lacks internal skills and resources to develop security services.

This business seeks to gain cloud computing elasticity benefits but they are unable to support public service access due to security restrictions.

Business legislation requires the company to use its own private secure services to control access to secure business services.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Security and Compliance

·  Data Center Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Private cloud capability

·  Access, authentication, repudiation

·  Audit and eDiscovery compliance

·  Securely partitioned and isolated

·  Disaster recovery

·  Web security authentication

·  Business continuity

Business Risks

·  Security and compliance breach

·  Lost business continuity

·  Sovereignty compromise

Government Use-Cases

Case 10: Research

Company Background

A US Department of Energy research and engineering facility decided to replace a Cray XMP accessed via the Internet with a cluster of UNIX servers. This decision was made both on the basis of cost (upgrade versus replace), and a goal of advancing clustering technology.

Business Problem/Description

Researchers and their collaborators were demanding more compute capacity than was available on the existing Cray XMP. The business problem was to equitably allocate compute resources across a mixture of batch and interactive workloads, and to bill each project for the resources used. “Controlled anarchy” was the researchers’ term for the acceptable level of systems management.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Mobile End User

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Equitably allocate the compute resources across a mixture of batch and interactive workloads

·  Bill each project for its use of compute resources

·  Support the then common programming languages to achieve minimum processing performance for typical high-performance computing workloads

·  Allow users to submit distributed workloads

·  Optimize resource utilization

·  Keep each project’s usage within its budget

·  Scale capacity quickly and cheaply

Business Risks

·  Systems management tools and programming models were not sufficiently mature to keep the IT costs within budget.

Case 11: Productivity

Company Background

This government agency wants to improve employee productivity and reduce end-user costs by leveraging mobile and social communities to improve the quality of business information and knowledge exchange.

Business Problem/Description

This entity must take advantage of lower-cost IT options including rapid delivery of productivity tools to its workforce. The organization contains many mobile workers who regularly need access to services; however, they are unable to invest in dedicated (in-house) mobile services and support. They are also experiencing huge desktop costs and support due to a large user base with many locations and disparate business operations.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Mobile End User

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Business mobility services and support

·  Business productivity requirements to improve community and knowledge development in the organization

·  Reduce end-user costs/charge-back to customers

Business Risks

·  Inefficiencies in business productivity

·  Technology incompatibility contributing to poor systems performance and downtimes

·  Security issues introduced with remote workforce

·  Dissatisfied customers

Case 12: Business Utility/Agility

Company Background

Current business unit activity has opportunities to create common utility services to better support merger and acquisition activities.

Business Problem/Description

This government agency is prone to expanded operations, mergers, and/or acquisitions, and activities that are shrinking the capacity of its IT.

Actors

·  Program Managers

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Use commodity services to reduce operating costs

·  Rationalize business assets through alternative sourcing of assets

·  Use external transition services to assist consolidation and rationalization of merger and acquisition activity

·  Need more elasticity – access to and rapid deployment of end-user services

Business Risks

·  Over and under-provisioned capacity

·  Failure to leverage assets to better serve common business services across business agency units

·  Complex asset dependencies remain unresolved

·  Lost customers from underperforming business

·  Excessive costs of infrastructure assets

Case 13: IT Cost Optimization

Company Background

Agency is conducting activities that are affecting IT capacity. These activities may include operations’ expansion, divestment, or significant mergers and/or acquisitions. The business needs to manage the cost of business operations and seek alternative ways to optimize investments.

Business Problem/Description

Current costs of IT are too expensive – in addition, productivity tools for the workforce are not delivered fast enough to keep up with market demands.

Actors

·  CTO, CIO, COO

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Order Fulfilment, including Storage

·  System Administrators

·  IT Delivery

Business Requirements

·  Current investments in business are high and need to be rationalized

·  The business seeks supply cost reductions through alternative methods of service supply on common services

·  Current business unit activity has opportunities to create common utility services to support merger and acquisition activities

·  Accurate, consumption-based charges for services

Business Risks

·  Complex asset dependencies remain unresolved

·  Excessive costs of infrastructure assets including storage

·  Failure to leverage assets efficiently in order to provide common business services across business partners and enterprise domains

Case 14: End-User Cost Optimization

Company Background

Business needs to facilitate delivery of new business services to users to improve productivity. Business wants to reduce costs of services with rapid deployment of mobile and create better social community experiences to improve access and quality of business information along with improved knowledge exchange.

Business Problem/Description

Current business operation is looking to maximize low-cost IT options to reduce costs and rapidly deliver business productivity tools to its workforce. They have many mobile workers who regularly need access to services on-the-move, but lack the scale to invest in dedicated mobile services and support. In addition, there are huge costs in desktop and support due to a large user base, diverse locations, and disparate business operations.

Actors

·  CTO, CIO, COO

·  Mobile Users

·  Delivery Teams, including web and application hosting

·  Business Partners

Business Requirements

·  Provide services and support on-demand to mobile workers

·  Improve the community and knowledge development in the organization

·  Need for large-scale investments in end-user services with high costs and complexity

Business Risks

·  Business productivity and efficiency decreases

·  Business loses customers from under-performance of business delivery

·  Security issues due to workforce working remotely

·  Incompatible business processes due to IT insertion

·  IT complexity increases due to additions to new business process capabilities

Case 15: Business Growth, Development, Test, and Validation Support

Company Background

Business unit has very elastic processes that require rapid test, validation, and quick solution deployments.

Business Problem/Description

Business has rapid introduction of new products and services with seasonal variation and on-demand needs for assets and resources, yet they face budget constraints and shortages in IT capacity.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

·  Test Management

·  Data Center Management

·  Development Management

Business Requirements

·  On-demand test service

·  On-demand business change validation

·  Access to development and test services

Business Risks

·  Over budget on development and test activities

·  Failure to deliver business products and services

·  Lost customers and market share due to failure to deliver customer promises and needs

Telecommunications Operator Use-Cases

Case 16: Service Delivery

Company Background

Current business is seeking online shopping and consumer services to sell products and services through mobile, cell, and other network-based services.

Business Problem/Description

This business is seeking to move services to new markets and channels through network-based services, but managed network service enablement is currently not available.

The communications network is seen as a challenge for extending products and services to a wider range of customers and markets that access network-based channels.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Internet Service Provider (ISP)/Network Service Provider (NSP)

·  Data Center Management

·  IT Operations Management

Business Requirements

·  Development of self-service and consumer market services to support product delivery and development

·  Transport as a service

·  Network as a service

·  Access to rapid deployment of compatible and simple end-user services through browser or end-user device

Business Risks

·  Lost market opportunities due to inefficient communications and delivery

·  Network performance issues

·  Lack of experience in managing network-based services

Case 17: Partner Collaboration

Company Background

Agency needs to facilitate collaboration with a range of partners and customers with no or limited IT resources or funding. There is a large marketplace of individual customers and participants all with common service needs to access business offerings.

Business Problem/Description

High manual workload tasks make each business transaction increasingly less cost-effective with increasing volumes. Business needs to offer common services to a large market that involve interaction of participants.

Actors

·  Business Procurement

·  Data Warehouse Management

·  Data Center Operations

Business Requirements

·  The business needs to manage the cost of business operations and seek alternative ways to offer common services

·  Provide social collaboration tools and skills within the business to meet demand

·  Information and services need sharing between participants’ collaboration using a common collaboration process and tool set

·  Control transaction costs

Business Risks

·  Transaction costs increase

·  Collaboration is not efficient

·  Customers’ and participants’ business is lost

Media and Entertainment Use-Cases

Case 18: Test Assurance Services

Company Background

Company has many test and validation procedures to ensure business operations. Test assurance services of business processes need accessing to ensure validation and continuity of services and changes to services. Business introduces many new products and services – continually updating the business portfolio.

Business Problem/Description

Company has rapid introduction of new products and services with seasonal variation on-demand for assets and resources, yet they are often constrained in capacity.

Actors

·  Media Outlets

·  Online Shoppers

·  Data Center Operations

Business Requirements

·  Business has very elastic processes that need rapid test and validation

·  Business needs to improve costs of complex development and test overhead

Business Risks

·  Development and test budgets exceeded

·  Business products, services, and delivery are constantly changing

·  Delivery of business products and services fail

·  Lost customers and market share due to failure to deliver customer needs

Health ServicesUse-Cases

Case 19: Rapid Deployment

Company Background

Business needs to facilitate new business services to business users to improve productivity experience. Business wants to reduce costs of services with rapid deployment to mobile devices. Business wants to create social communities to improve access and quality of business information and knowledge exchange.

Business Problem/Description

Current costs of IT options too expensive and productivity tools for workforce not delivered fast enough.

Actors

·  Healthcare Providers

·  Healthcare Administrators

·  HealthCare Payer/Payee

·  Patients

·  IT Operations

Business Requirements

·  Operations looking to maximize low-cost IT options to reduce costs and rapidly deliver business productivity tools to its workforce

·  Current business has many mobile workers who regularly need access to services on-the-move, but lack the scale to invest in dedicated mobile services and support

·  Huge costs in desktop costs and support due to large user base with many locations and disparate business operations

Business Risks

·  Lost business productivity and efficiency

·  Lost customers from under-performance of business delivery

·  Security issues of workforce working remotely

·  Risk of compatibility of IT technology insertion

·  Increased complexity of IT with additions to new business process capabilities

Pharmaceuticals Use-Cases

Case 20: Rapid Business Process Extension

Company Background

Business needs to introduce a new business process. The solution can be an extension to the existing applications through use of rapid BPM or a sourced solution from a cloud supplier or service source forge inventory. Need to rapidly access IT capability not available in current business operations. The solution seeks to source a business process function available from the open market.

Business Problem/Description

The company is currently operating in silos which are causing disconnection between how business and IT resources are shared and coordinated. This is negatively impacting manufacturing and other key business processes. Development and test resources appear to have a deficit in skills to support quality delivery of the new business process.

Actors

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  Market Sourcing and Procurement

·  IT Operations Management

·  End Users/Patients/Healthcare Administrators

Business Requirements

·  Business needs to introduce a workflow to connect different business processes and applications

·  Business needs to introduce a workflow to connect different business applications to improve information quality flow

·  Need to introduce a temporary project administration

·  Need to introduce a temporary development and test environment to develop and deliver a new functional requirement

·  Need to introduce quality management tracking and reporting of business processes cutting across a number of business areas and applications and database sources

Business Risks

·  Lost customers due to under-performance of business delivery

·  Risk of compatibility of technology insertions

·  Increased complexity of IT

·  Poor quality products and services

·  Increased complexity of IT with additions to new business process capabilities

DistributionUse-Cases

Case 21: Brand Unification

Company Background

A retail distributor embarked on a strategic initiative to unify its brands worldwide under the company’s name for competitive advantage, and to increase business results by “helping its multiple business units work together more efficiently”.

Business Problem/Description

The company’s workforce needs to communicate and collaborate more efficiently with its global network of customers, suppliers, and business partners in support of a strategic brand unification initiative.

Actors

·  Suppliers

·  Line of Business (LoB) Leaders

·  Distribution Centers

Business Requirements

·  Reduce total costs of ownership by: transforming the workforce into a globally integrated team; looking to partners for solutions that may have better capabilities; and leveraging existing IT infrastructure without burdening IT resources

·  Be innovative without compromising security, reliability, or privacy

Business Risks

·  Unmet business performance objectives

·  Poor partner selection and product service offerings

·  Delayed order fulfilment cycles

·  Inconsistent service offerings

·  Security, reliability, and privacy compromised

Case 22: Innovation – New Ventures

Company Background

This distribution company is small to medium-sized with a broad and diverse customer base. This was a new, innovative undertaking.

Business Problem/Description

The company needed a business model that was responsive and flexible to diverse customer demands. Current processes were reported as co-location with personal management of purchasing, configuring, and ongoing maintenance of hardware, software, and operating systems. The process was time-consuming, costly, and appears labor-intensive. The company needed provisioning and de-provisioning of servers in minutes, instead of its current turnaround rate of days.

Actors

·  Internet/Web Users

·  COO & Operations Staff

·  Data Center Staff & Management

Business Requirements

·  The company was challenged to scale its business in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to achieve customer satisfaction targets that optimized costs to the customer and the company as a whole

·  Two business performance indicators were to: provide spam filtering at a low price to consumers with little or no venture capital funding; and achieve 99% spam blocking rates with continued operations as a cost-effective company

Business Risks

·  Data center requirements were reported as “in flux” and at risk in manageability and implementation. This caused concern regarding the company’s overall support capabilities of this new undertaking.

Energy and UtilitiesUse-Cases

Case 23: Green Footprint

Company Background

Business needs to facilitate all options to improve green footprint emissions of their operations. Currently, business has expectations for rapid growth in IT services demand causing “drift” in its workloads and emissions from increased power consumption.

Business Problem/Description

Current business operation investments internally have reached limits in green cost reductions and are looking for other options and sources.

Actors

·  Data Center Management and Operations

·  Line of Business (LoB) Leaders

·  Sustainability Sales and Marketing Executives

Business Requirements

·  Maximize utilization

·  Reduce carbon footprint

Business Risks

·  Lack of carbon reduction compliance

·  Lost image in marketplace over green credentials

·  Lost business due to inability to offer green services

Higher EducationUse-Cases

Case 24: Virtual Learning

Company Background

Distance learning is an essential component of public community colleges that are engines for workforce development for local economy. In recent years, public community colleges are adversely affected by state budget cuts. These college campuses are looking for opportunities to cut cost without affecting delivery channels and student enrollment.

Business Problem/Description

Virtual learning environment is one of the common delivery methods in higher education. Each of the community colleges in a state maintains its own set of applications and infrastructure for virtual learning environment duplicating IT cost for each of the campuses and college systems.

Actors

·  Faculty

·  Student

·  Instructional Technology Specialists

Business Requirements

·  Use of shared environments by different community college campuses in a state for delivery of virtual education to certain population in the community as an alternative to classroom teaching

Business Risks

·  Lack of sufficient state funding will lead to elimination of distant learning programs

·  Shutting down a delivery method which is often the only viable learning delivery method to a part of the population who are engines for the local workforce

·  Loss of student enrollment to online schools that specialize and are pure players in distant learning and virtual education delivery

Use-Case Actors

Which stakeholders influence cloud buying decisions? Are there common attributes of these stakeholders and business responsibilities? Here are the key business and IT actors that appear in the use-cases, with their roles, and their impacts on cloud buying decisions.

C-level stakeholders such as the CIO, CTO, and COO rationalize investments in IT for supporting the business processes and improving employee productivity using internal and external collaborations. These stakeholders are constantly seeking new ways to optimize investments, especially when it comes to large-scale investments in end-user services that involve high costs and complexity.

Business Operations Controllers and Business Procurement Managers view cloud as a means to modernize business processes and ease management of business activities; for example, through automatic or self-service IT management facilities. While cloud provides the capability to scale quickly and cheaply, the business operations manager needs to optimize resource utilization and reduce the operating costs. The Business Procurement Manager, on the other hand, is responsible for keeping each project’s usage within its budget and reducing end-user costs.

Line of Business (LoB) leaders and IT delivery teams require the assistance of IT to support rapid deployment and launch of new products and services. These teams are required to work collaboratively to manage cloud and integrate this new delivery model in their enterprise.

End users definitely have an impact on buyer decisions though they are often unaware of how their services are implemented.

The actors in the use-cases are analyzed in this section, using a template that has six elements:

  • The name of the actor
  • The organization to which the actor belongs
  • The use-case category (and the organization’s industry sector)
  • Relationships
  • Responsibilities
  • Associations to use-cases

Actor 1: Business Operations Controller

Organization

Cloud Service Consumer

Category

Cross Industry, Financial Services, Government, Pharmaceuticals

Relationships

·  Shareholders

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Responsibilities

·  Generate management reports for shareholders to report the business performance (Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and Service-Level Agreements (SLA)) to shareholders

·  Provide Business process extensions; e.g., BPO

·  Provide governance structure and control to manage disparate activities for project-based resources

·  Provide necessary disaster and recovery back-up processes

·  Ensure that business activities can be carried out during times of additional complexity, such as mergers and acquisitions

·  Provide business mobility services and support

·  Business productivity requirements to improve community and knowledge development in the organization

·  Provide workflow to connect different business processes and applications to improve information quality flow

·  Introduce quality management tracking and reporting of business processes cutting across a number of business areas and applications and database sources

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Business Activity Reporting

·  Rapid Business Capacity & Scale

·  Operational Efficiency

·  Business Transaction Assurance and Continuity

·  Research

·  Productivity

·  Rapid Business Process Extension

Actor 2: Business Procurement Manager

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Cross Industry, Government, Financial Services, Telecom, Energy & Utilities

Relationships

·  Business Operations Controller

·  IT Operations Management

Responsibilities

·  Modernize business processes

·  Procure Business process extensions; e.g., BPO

·  Provide management (e.g., automatically or self-service) for business activities

·  Provide scale up and down options for resources with associated temporary capacity for business activities

·  Optimize resource utilization

·  Keep each project’s usage within its budget

·  Scale capacity quickly and cheaply

·  Reduce end-user costs/charge-back to customers

·  Use commodity services to reduce operating costs

·  Rationalize business assets through alternative sourcing of assets

·  Use external transition services to assist consolidation and rationalization of merger and acquisition activity

·  Manage the cost of business operations and seek alternative ways to offer common services

·  Procure collaboration tools and skills within the business to meet demand

·  Control transaction costs

·  Reduce supply costs through alternative methods of service supply on common services

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Modernization

·  Rapid Business Capacity & Scale

·  Operational Efficiency

·  Research

·  Productivity

·  Business Utility/Agility

·  Partner Collaboration

Actor 3: IT Operations Manager

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Cross Industry, Financial Services, Government

Relationships

·  Business Procurement Manager

·  Business Operations Manager

·  Data Center Management

Responsibilities

·  Modernize infrastructure and applications

·  Provide and manage remote user desktop services

·  Infinite compute and storage capacity on-demand

·  Access to temporary computing processing for business simulation and transaction processing

·  Manage scale up and down options for resources (project-based) with associated temporary capacity for business activities

·  Provide access to rapid deployment of compatible and simple end-user services through browser or end-user device

·  Ensure reliable and responsive IT service provision to support product and service launch

·  Provision capacity for storage of information and to support service delivery

·  Provide environment for typical high-performance computing workloads

·  Allow users to submit distributed workloads

·  Bill each project for their use of compute resources

·  Provide elasticity – access to and rapid deployment of end-user services

·  Use shared services to maximize utilization in exploring virtualization and other options for reducing the carbon footprint

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Modernization

·  Rapid Business Capacity & Scale

·  Operational Efficiency

·  People Productivity/Workplace Collaboration

·  Business Transaction Assurance and Continuity

·  Research

·  Productivity

·  Business Utility/Agility

·  IT Cost Optimization

·  Business Growth

·  Development, Test, and Validation Support

·  On-demand Business Change Validation

·  Green Footprint

Actor 4: CIO/CTO

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Cross Industry

Relationships

·  IT Operations Manager

·  Line of Business (LoB)

Responsibilities

·  Improve the internal collaboration (e.g., communication methods) for the business

·  Improve the external collaboration (e.g., customer meetings) for the business

·  Rationalize investments in IT

·  Create common utility services to support merger and acquisition activities

·  Provide services and support on-demand to mobile workers

·  Improve the community and knowledge development in the organization

·  Manage large-scale investments in end-user services with high costs and complexity

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  People Productivity

·  Workplace Collaboration

·  IT Cost Optimization

·  End-User Cost Optimization

Actor 5: Development/Test Team Manager

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Cross Industry

Relationships

·  IT Operations Manager

Responsibilities

·  Provision development and test environments at short notice

·  Redeploy development and test environments once tests have been conducted

·  Decrease/maintain Time-to-market for products

·  Provide on-demand test service

·  Provide on-demand business change validation

·  Provide access to development and test services

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Development and Test Services

·  Business Growth

·  Development, Test, and Validation Support

Actor 6: Marketing Manager

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Financial Services

Relationships

·  New Product Development

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Business Procurement Management

·  IT Operations Management

Responsibilities

·  Release new products and/or services

·  Ensure rapid development and launch of new product and/or service specification

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Business Market Launch

Actor 7: Security and Compliance Manager

Organization

Service Consumer

Category

Financial Services

Relationships

·  Business Operations Controller

·  Data Center Management

·  IT Operations Management

Responsibilities

·  Ensure private cloud capability is secure and complies with regulations

·  Ensure access, authentication, repudiation facilities are good

·  Ensure audit and eDiscovery compliance

·  Ensure web security authentication is satisfactory

·  Ensure system is securely partitioned and isolated

·  Ensure good disaster recovery capabilities

·  Ensure business continuity

Associations to
Use-Cases

·  Secure Business Assurance Services

Use-Case Benefits

This section presents the benefits of cloud computing that are exemplified by the use-cases, in tabular form. For each use-case, it shows:

  • The essential characteristics, service models, and deployment models of cloud computing that contribute to success (the cloud computing “features”)
  • The advantages that these features bring
  • The benefits to the enterprise resulting from these advantages

 

Use-Case

Feature

Advantage

Benefit

Business Activity Reporting

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use

The enterprise will produce SLA and OLA reports for the internal and external service providers by combining information on service use with location information, and will report its business performance to shareholders by combining the same service information with business information.

Modernization

IaaS and SaaS

Ready availability of infrastructure and applications

The company will modernize its infrastructure and applications by obtaining them as cloud services.

 

Public Cloud

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company will not need skills or training.

Rapid Business Capacity and Scale

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The company will have access to infinite compute and storage capacity on-demand.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

The company will have access to temporary computing resources for business simulation and transaction processing, and will have the ability to deploy existing business process resources rapidly, through cloud resource agility.

 

Private Cloud

Ability to use the cloud model in-house

The company will have the ability to deploy existing business process resources, including applications and infrastructure.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

Its ability to extend its business processes will not be compromised by inability to support them with resources.

Operational Efficiency

IaaS

On-Demand Self-Service

Ready availability of infrastructure

Availability of services on-demand

Availability by self-service

The company can use IaaS. Projects that need infrastructure can then obtain it on demand, by self-service.

 

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use

Provider reports on service use will facilitate management of the provisioning of the infrastructure and governance of its allocation and use.

People Productivity, Workplace Collaboration

Public Cloud

SaaS

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

Ready availability of applications

The company can obtain remote user desktop services, improved communication methods, and better support for customer meetings through cloud services, to improve its internal and external communications. These improvements will be easy to implement, and secure.

Development and Test Services

PaaS

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Ready availability of platform

Resource agility

The company will introduce development and test services that can be deployed more quickly than at present by using a cloud development/test platform.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

Cost will be minimized through the ability to scale resources to match demand.

Business Transaction Assurance and Continuity

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Public Cloud

Resource agility

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company will ensure that business activities continue effectively during times of additional complexity, such as mergers and acquisitions, by obtaining the additional resources that it needs on-demand from the cloud.

 

Resource Pooling

Public Cloud

Ability to use resources in different locations

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company will implement the necessary back-up and disaster recovery processes using infrastructure that is off-premise and in different locations.

Business Market Launch

PaaS

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Ready availability of platform

Resource agility

The company will speed up the development of applications, and the launch and deployment of the products, by using a cloud development/deployment platform. The platform services will be responsive and reliable.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The company will have increased information storage capacity because the cloud resources can be scaled to match demand.

Secure Business Assurance Services

Private Cloud

Ability to use the cloud model in-house

The company can implement a secure private cloud platform that will provide partitioning and isolation and ensure compliance with national regulations and with audit and eDiscovery legislation, and can deploy the applications that it needs on this platform.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

Use of a cloud platform will mean that the applications are scalable.

 

Resource Pooling

Ability to use resources in different locations

The company will implement disaster recovery capabilities to ensure business continuity using infrastructure that is in different locations.

Research

Resource Pooling

Dynamic assignment of resources to consumers

The facility will be able to allocate compute resources equitably across a mixture of batch and interactive workloads because the cloud services dynamically assign pooled resources.

 

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use

The facility will be able to bill each project for its use of compute resources, using the providers' reports on service use.

 

IaaS

Ready availability of infrastructure.

The facility will be able to support the common programming languages of the day by implementing this support on cloud infrastructure.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

The facility will be able to achieve optimal processing performance for typical high-performance computing workloads, and allow users to submit distributed workloads, because of cloud resource agility.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The facility will be able to optimize resource utilization by matching resources to demand.

 

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use

The facility will be able to keep each project’s usage within its budget by monitoring provider reports of service use.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The facility will be able to scale capacity quickly and cheaply to match demand.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Ability of users to provision resources.

The facility will have a level of systems management acceptable to the users because the users will be able to provision the resources that they need on-demand.

Productivity

SaaS

Public Cloud

Ready availability of applications

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The agency can use collaboration services available on the cloud to achieve better business productivity through improved community working and knowledge development.

 

Broad Network Access

Capabilities can be accessed from a variety of client platforms

The agency will have improved support for mobile users because the cloud services can be accessed from mobile 'phones, laptops, and PDAs.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The agency may be able to achieve reduced end-user costs by being able to scale resources to match demand.

 

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use

The agency will be able to charge costs back to its customers, using providers' reports on service use.

Business Utility/Agility

PaaS

Ready availability of platform

The agency will be able to create common utility services to support its activities using a cloud platform.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The agency will have IT elasticity because the cloud gives the ability to scale resources to match demand.

 

Broad Network Access

Capabilities can be accessed from a variety of client platforms

The agency will give users better access to services because the cloud capabilities can be accessed from a variety of client platforms.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

The agency will be able to achieve rapid deployment of end-user services through resource agility.

 

IaaS

Ready availability of infrastructure.

The agency will be able to rationalize its business assets by using cloud infrastructure to replace in-house resources.

IT Cost Optimization

IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS

Public Cloud

Ready availability of infrastructure, platform, and applications

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The agency will be able to rationalize its business assets through alternative sourcing of common cloud infrastructure, platform, and software services.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The agency will be able to achieve cost reductions through the ability to scale resources to meet demand.

 

Measured Service

Availability of reports on service use.

The agency will have accurate, consumption-based charges for the services through provider reports on service use.

End-User Cost Optimization

SaaS

Ready availability of applications

The agency will be able to provide services and support using SaaS applications.

 

Public Cloud

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The agency will not need large-scale investments in end-user services.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Ability of users to provision resources

The agency will be able to provide those services and support on-demand, through the ability of users to provision resources.

 

Broad Network Access

Capabilities can be accessed from a variety of client platforms.

The agency will be able to provide the services and support to mobile users, because the cloud services can be accessed from mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs. This access will be secure.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The agency will be able to avoid high costs through the ability to scale resources to meet demand.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

The agency will be able to avoid complexity by taking advantage of resource agility to optimize its resource configuration.

Business Growth, Development, Test, and Validation Support

PaaS

Ready availability of platform

The government unit will be able to create services for business change validation, solution development, and solution testing, using a cloud platform.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Ability to provision services on-demand.

The services will be available and accessible on demand.

Service Delivery

Cloud Model

Ability to be a cloud provider

By becoming a cloud provider, the telco can provide “network as a service” and “transport as a service” to online consumer service companies.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Ability to provision services on-demand

The online consumer service companies will have self-service purchasing and configuration capabilities that are usable by companies with no experience in managing network-based services.

Partner Collaboration

SaaS

Ready availability of applications

The telco can enable information sharing and business activity through a common collaborative toolset provided by applications available as cloud services.

Test Assurance Services

PaaS

Ready availability of platform

The company can introduce new test assurance services implemented on a cloud platform.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

The services can be deployed rapidly on-demand because of cloud resource agility.

 

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

Costs can be kept to a minimum because of the ability to scale resources to match demand.

Rapid Deployment

IaaS or PaaS

Ready availability of infrastructure or platform

The company can create its means of service delivery and information exchange to enable rapid deployment, using cloud infrastructure or a cloud platform.

 

Broad Network Access

Capabilities can be accessed from a variety of client platforms.

The company will be able to deploy the services to mobile users, because the cloud services can be accessed from mobile 'phones, laptops, and PDAs. This access will be secure.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Measured Service

Ability to provision services on demand

Availability of reports on service use

The means will be simple to manage because of the ability to provision services on-demand and the availability of provider reports on service use.

Rapid Business Process Extension

SaaS

Public Cloud

Ready availability of applications

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company may be able to use SaaS products to support the process extension available on the open market, either stand-alone or as an extension to its existing applications.

 

IaaS or PaaS

Ready availability of infrastructure or platform

Otherwise, the company can set up its project administration, development environment and test environment, and its workflow engine, using cloud infrastructure or a cloud platform.

Brand Unification

SaaS

Ready availability of applications

The company can transform its workforce into a globally integrated team by using cloud-based collaboration services. These services can be reliable and secure.

 

Private Cloud

Ability to use the cloud model in-house.

The company can leverage existing IT infrastructure without burdening IT resources by implementing a private cloud.

 

SaaS

Public Cloud

Ready availability of applications

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company may find solutions that may have better capabilities offered as SaaS services.

 

PaaS

Ready availability of platform

Alternatively, by incorporating PaaS in its private cloud, the company will enable software providers to port their products to its environment very easily.

 

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Resource agility

Resource agility will contribute to timely order fulfillment.

Innovation – New Ventures

IaaS

On-Demand Self-Service

Resource Pooling

Rapid Elasticity

Public Cloud

Ready availability of infrastructure

Resource agility

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company can obtain hardware, software, and operating systems through IaaS; resource agility will then enable it to implement more efficient processes for purchasing, configuring, and ongoing maintenance, and achieve provisioning and de-provisioning of servers in minutes.

 

SaaS

Public Cloud

Ready availability of applications

Ability to use externally provided cloud services without investment or preconditions

The company may find the applications that it needs to deliver improved business services offered as SaaS services.

Green Footprint

Rapid Elasticity

Ability to scale resources to match demand

The companies can maximize utilization by scaling resources to meet demand. (The ability to do this is based on virtualization and shared services.)

 

Resource Pooling

Ability to use resources in different locations

The companies can reduce their carbon footprint (or, at least, appear to do so) by using off-premise resources.

Virtual Learning

Community Cloud

Ability for a community to share infrastructure

The colleges can share their virtual learning applications and infrastructure by implementing a community cloud.

 

 

 

 

 

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