Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


The TOGAF Glossary is intended to define terms essential to the understanding of TOGAF. It is not intended as a general purpose open systems glossary and does not contain terms considered to be in common use.

AC
Access Control
ACSE
Association Control Service Element
Ada
High-level computer programming language developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD). Ada is used as the standard programming language for DoD. It is used for real-time processing, is modular in nature, and includes object-oriented features.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
API
See Application Program Interface
APP
See Application Portability Profile
Application
A classification of computer programs designed to perform specific tasks, such as word processing, database management, or graphics.
Application Platform
The collection of hardware and software components that provide the services used by support and mission-mission-specific software applications.
Application Portability Profile (APP)
The NIST APP is the structure that integrates US Federal, national, international, and other specifications to provide the functionality necessary to accommodate the broad range of US Federal information technology requirements.
Application Program Interface (API)
(1) The interface, or set of functions, between the application software and the application platform.
(2) The most common means by which an software programmer invokes other software functions.
Application Software
Software entities which have a specific business purpose.
APSE
Ada Programming Support Environment
Architectural Framework
A tool for assisting in the production of organization-specific architectures. An architectural framework consists of a technical reference model, a method for architecture development and a list of component standards, specifications, products and their interrelationships which can be used to build up architectures.
Architecture
Architecture has two meanings depending upon its contextual usage.
(1) A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation.
(2) The structure of components, their interrelationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.
Architecture, Baseline
The existing system architecture before entering a cycle of architecture review and redesign.
Architecture, Database
The logical view of the data models, data standards, and data structure. It includes a definition of the physical databases for the information system, their performance requirements, and their geographical distribution.
Architecture, Target
Depicts the configuration of the target information system.
Architecture View
A perspective from which an architecture may be viewed in order to ensure that a specific topic is considered in a coherent manner - e.g. Security.
ASN
Abstract Syntax Notation
Availability
The probability that system functional capabilities are ready for use by a user at any time, where all time is considered, including operations, repair, administration, and logistic time. Availability is further defined by system category for both routine and priority operations.
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Base-level functions
Initial or basic functions.
Baseline
A specification or product that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures or a type of procedure such as configuration management.
Batch processing
Processing data or the accomplishment of jobs accumulated in advance in such a manner that each accumulation thus formed is processed or accomplished in the same computer run.
Business system
Hardware, software, policy statements, procedures and people which together implement a business function.

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CCITT
Consultative Committee on International Telegraph and Telephone
Client
An application component which requests services from a server.
CMIS
Common Management Information Service
CMIP
Common Management Information Protocol
COBOL
Acronym for Common Business-Oriented Language. COBOL is a computer programming language used extensively in mainframes and minicomputers for business applications.
Communications mechanism
Hardware and software functions which allow Application Platforms to exchange information.
Communications network
A set of products, concepts, and services, that enable the connection of computer systems for the purpose of transmitting data and other forms (e.g., voice and video) between the systems.
Communications node
A node that is either internal to the communications network (e.g., routers, bridges, or repeaters) or located between the end device and the communications network to operate as a gateway.
Communications system
A set of assets (transmission media, switching nodes, interfaces, and control devices), that will establish linkage between users and devices.
Configuration management
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to:
(a) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item,
(b) control changes to those characteristics and,
(c) record and report changes to processing and implementation status.
Connectivity Service
A service area of the External Environment entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides end-to-end connectivity for communications through three transport levels (global, regional, and local). It provides general and applications-applications-specific services to platform end devices.
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture

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Data Dictionary
A specialized type of database containing metadata, which is managed by a data dictionary system; a repository of information describing the characteristics of data used to design, monitor, document, protect, and control data in information systems and databases; an application of data dictionary systems.
Data Element
A basic unit of information having a meaning and that may have subcategories (data items) of distinct units and values.
Database
Structured or organized collection of information, which may be accessed by the computer.
Database management system
Computer application program that accesses or manipulates the database.
Data Interchange Service
A service of the Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides specialized support for the interchange of data between applications on the same or different platforms.
Data Management Service
A service of the Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides support for the management, storage, access, and manipulation of data in a database.
DBMS
Database Management System
DCE
Distributed Computing Environment
DDL
Data Definition Language
Default
Command which is automatically executed if none is specifically indicated.
Directory Service
Part of the network services of the Application Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides locator services that are restricted to finding the location of a service, location of data, or translation of a common name into a network specific address. It is analogous to telephone books and supports distributed directory implementations.
DISA
US Department of Defense Information Systems Agency
Distributed Database
(1) A database that is not stored in a central location but is dispersed over a network of interconnected computers.
(2) A database under the overall control of a central database management system but whose storage devices are not all attached to the same processor.
(3) A database that is physically located in two or more distinct locations.
DMF
Data Management Facility

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ECMA
European Computer Manufacturers Association
EDI
Electronic Data Interchange
EEI
External Environment Interface
End user
Person who ultimately uses the computer application or output.
Enterprise
The highest level in an organization ----includes all missions and functions.
Enterprise Model
A high level model of an organization's mission, function, and information architecture. The model consists of a function model and a data model.
ES
End system
Expand
Ability to resize objects to produce better organization of on-screen material, usually a graphic or a window.
External Environment Interface (EEI)
The interface that supports information transfer between the application platform and the external environment.

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File
Any specifically identified collection of information stored in the computer.
FIPS
Federal Information Processing Standard.
FORTRAN
Acronym for FORmula TRANslator, which is a high level computer language used extensively in scientific and engineering applications.
FTAM
File Transfer, Access, and Management
Function
A useful capability provided by one or more components of a system.

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GNMP
Government Network Management Profile
GOSIP
Government Open System Interconnection Profile
GSS
General Security Service
GUI
Graphical User Interface

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Hardware
(1) Physical equipment, as opposed to programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation.
(2) Contrast with software.
Human-Computer Interface (HCI)
Human Computer Interface Hardware and software allowing information exchange between the user and the computer.

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IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission, the international standards body which is responsible for electrical standards.
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
Information
Any communication or representation of knowledge such as facts, data, or opinions, in any medium or form, including textual, numerical, graphic, cartographic, narrative, or audio-visual forms.
Information Domain
A set of commonly and unambiguously labeled information objects with a common security policy that defines the protections to be afforded the objects by authorized users and information management systems.
Information System
The computer-based portion of a business system.
Information Technology (IT)
The technology included in hardware and software used for information, regardless of the technology involved, whether computers, communications, micro graphics, or others.
Interface
Interconnection and interrelationships between two devices, two applications, or the user and an application or device.
Interoperability
(1) The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange and use information.
(2) The ability of systems to provide and receive services from other systems and to use the services so interchanged to enable them to operate effectively together.
IS
Information System
ISA
Information System Architecture
ISO
International Standards Organization
IT
Information Technology

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JTC1
A Joint Technical Committee established by ISO and IEC to take responsibility for their shared interests in IT standardization.

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LAN
Local Area Network
Life cycle
The period of time that begins when a system is conceived and ends when the system is no longer available for use.

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Metaview (also known as a viewpoint)
A specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view. A metaview acts as a pattern or template of the view, from which to develop individual views.  A metaview establishes the purposes and audience for a view, the ways in which the view is documented (e.g., for visual modeling), and the ways in which it is used (e.g., for analysis).
MIS
Management Information Systems
MLS
Multilevel Security
MTA
Message Transfer Agent
Multimedia service
A service of the Technical Reference Model that provides the capability to manipulate and manage information products consisting of text, graphics, images, video, and audio.

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NIST
US National Institute of Standards and Technology
NLSP
Network Layer Security Protocol

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ODA
Office Document Architecture
ODIF
Office Document Interchange Format
OIW
OSI Implementors' Workshop
OODBMS
Object-Oriented Database Management System
Open specifications
Public specifications that are maintained by an open, public consensus process to accommodate new technologies over time and that are consistent with international standards.
Open system
A system that implements sufficient open specifications for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered applications software: (a) to be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems, (b) to interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems, and (c) to interact with users in a style that facilitates user portability.
Open systems environment (OSE)
The comprehensive set of interfaces, services, and supporting formats, plus user aspects for interoperability or for portability of applications, data, or people, as specified by information technology standards and profiles.
Operating system service
A core service of the Application Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that is needed to operate and administer the application platform and provide an interface between the application software and the platform (e.g., file management, input/output, print spoolers).
ORB
Object Request Broker
OS
Operating System
OSE
Open System Environment
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection

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PEX
PHIGS Extension to X Windows
PHIGS
Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System
Platform
See Application Platform.
Portability
(1) The ease with which a system or component can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
(2) A quality metric that can be used to measure the relative effort to transport the software for use in another environment or to convert software for use in another operating environment, hardware configuration, or software system environment.
(3) The ease with which a system, component, data, or user can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
POSIX
Portable Operating System Interface (for Computer Environments)
Profile
A set of one or more base standards, and, where applicable, the identification of those classes, subsets, options, and parameters of those base standards, necessary for accomplishing a particular function.
Profiling
Selecting standards for a particular application.

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RDA
Remote Database Access
RDBMS
Relational Database Management System
Repository
A system that manages all of the data of an enterprise, including data and process models and other enterprise information. Hence, the data in a repository is much more extensive than that in a Data Dictionary, which generally defines only the data making up a database.
RM
Reference Model
RPC
Remote Procedure Call

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Scalability
The ability to use the same application software on many different classes of hardware/software platforms from personal computers to super computers (extends the portability concept). The capability to grow to accommodate increased work loads.
Security
Services which protect data, ensuring its confidentiality, availability and integrity.
Server
An application component which responds to requests from a client.
SGML
Standard Generalized Markup Language
SMAP
Security Management Application Process
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA
System Network Architecture
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
SQL
Structured Query Language
SWG
Special Working Group
System
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions (taken from Draft Recommended Practice for Architectural Description IEEE P1471/D5.2).
System and network management service
A cross-category service of the Application Platform Entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides for the administration of the overall information system. These services include the management of information, processors, networks, configurations, accounting, and performance.
System stakeholder
An individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system (taken from ANSI/IEEE Std 1471-2000).
 

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TAFIM
Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management
Taxonomy of architecture views
the organized collection of all views pertinent to an architecture.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCSEC
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria
Technical Reference Model
A structure which allows the components of an information system to be described in a consistent manner.
TFA
Transparent File Access
TLSP
Transport Layer Security Protocol
TNI
Trusted Network Interpretation
TP
Transaction processing
Transaction
Interaction between a user and a computer in which the user inputs a command to receive a specific result from the computer.
Transaction sequence
Order of transactions required to accomplish the desired results.
TRM
Technical Reference Model
TSIG
Trusted Systems Interoperability Group

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UIDL
User Interface Definition Language
UIMS
User Interface Management System
UISRM
User Interface System Reference Model
User
(1) Any person, organization, or functional unit that uses the services of an information processing system.
(2) In a conceptual schema language, any person or any thing that may issue or receive commands and messages to or from the information system.
User Interface Service
A service of the Application Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that supports direct human-machine interaction by controlling the environment in which users interact with applications.

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View
A representation of a whole system from the perspective of a related set of concerns. 
Viewpoint (also known as a metaview)
A specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view. A metaview acts as a pattern or template of the view, from which to develop individual views.  A metaview establishes the purposes and audience for a view, the ways in which the view is documented (e.g., for visual modeling), and the ways in which it is used (e.g., for analysis).
 

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WAN
Wide Area Network

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Copyright The Open Group, 1998, 2000